Volume 11, Issue 3

School Experiments on Different Lithium Batteries
Special Issue
Lithium-ion based batteries are the most commonly used energy storage systems for electronic systems like tablets, smartphones, etc. in present times. Moreover, lithium ion-batteries are “the beacon of hope” for the automotive industry for the use in electric and hybrid cars and for the energy revolution to be applied as a short-time energy storage. However, other lithium-metal-based batteries are used in everyday life, such as lithium-manganese dioxide battery or lithium-iodine-battery. These types of batteries are much less known, but are used very frequently in everyday life. In this article simple experiments with lithium-batteries are presented.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 121-126. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-16
Pub. Date: October 07, 2023
428 Views18 Downloads
Tracking Electrons - Colourful Insights into the Processes of Bipolar Electrochemistry with Polypyrrole
Special Issue
The following article is intended to highlight the importance and usefulness of bipolar electrochemistry for science and for school and university teaching. In addition, a suitable explanation of the phenomena that take place on the basis of bipolar electrochemistry will be presented and visualised and confirmed by means of the different colours of the oxidation states of polypyrrole.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 114-120. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-15
Pub. Date: September 27, 2023
3397 Views19 Downloads
Catalysis Revisited An Overview of Classical School Experiments and New Approaches for a Better Conceptual Understanding
Special Issue
The topics of kinetics and catalysis represent important contents in the chemical education of students and form fixed components of current school curricula and syllabi. Students need to acquire specific content knowledge and an adequate conceptual understanding of kinetics and catalysis in order to understand and evaluate chemical processes from nature and technology, especially in the current contexts of green and sustainable chemistry. To promote such an adequate conceptual understanding, this article presents five school experiments. The experiments allow high school students to acquire the concepts of kinetics and catalysis in a technically correct manner using kinetic measurements. By analyzing the recorded kinetic data using suitable spreadsheet programs, students leave the qualitative observation level and use mathematical models that allow them to draw conclusions about the underlying molecular processes. The use of spreadsheet programs underlines the interdisciplinary nature of this approach. The presented selection of experiments will provide students with an overview of all types of catalyses and their specific properties as well as common, even-numbered reaction orders. The newly acquired knowledge through the experiments enables the students to discuss economic and ecological problem situations and reflect on, and evaluate, courses of action in chemistry. The knowledge also enables students to develop adequate decision-making strategies and to communicate them properly, e.g., in the context of green and sustainable chemistry.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 104-113. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-14
Pub. Date: September 18, 2023
456 Views9 Downloads
Nanomedicine in Chemistry Education: Development of a Digital Learning Module with Real Life Experiments
Original Research
This publication introduces a digital learning module on the topic of nanomedicine for chemistry education in high schools and for student laboratories. Nanoparticles provide a modern approach for treating diseases. By encapsulating active ingredients in nanoparticles the ingredients are not distributed in the entire body, but can be specifically transported and released to the target organs and tissues. The advantage of this approach is that a higher dose can reach the designated target while minimizing the overall dosage and resulting side effects. This research topic offers excellent links to classical school chemistry contents such as polymer chemistry, polymerization, ester formation and cleavage, polarity, and solubility. The digital learning module is based on a differentiation grid that offers students with varying learning backgrounds an individual way to access and engage with the module.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 97-103. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-13
Pub. Date: September 06, 2023
551 Views13 Downloads
Stripping voltammetry with a bismuth electrode as an alternative to mercury electrode - a contribution to green chemistry
Original Research
Stripping voltammetry can be used to measure trace metals simultaneously at low concentrations. The experimental equipment is inexpensive, especially compared to spectroscopic methods such as atomic emission spectroscopy. In the past, mercury has been used as a drop or film electrode. However, due to its high toxicity, an alternative has to be found. Experiments using non-toxic bismuth as an electrode are described. A chemist is familiar with the chemical principles used, such as pre-concentration of the metal ions of interest at a suitable electrode and subsequent stripping of the metal. Therefore, the teaching of the principles of stripping voltammetry would be a straightforward task.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 92-96. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-12
Pub. Date: August 28, 2023
473 Views3 Downloads
Spectral Interaction between ECL of Luminol and Different Luminophores - New Spectroelectrochemical Experiments for Students
Original Research
The resonant energy transfer from luminol / H2O2 to various luminophores is described in detail. The emission of light is triggered by the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol. Luminophores can absorb the light and fluoresce. By using a mixture of different dyes, a wide range of emissions can be produced. The luminophore [Ru(bpy)3]2+ / tripropylamine can react in two ways: Either it can fluoresce by resonance energy transfer from the luminol, or it can emit by ECL itself.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 87-91. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-11
Pub. Date: August 28, 2023
444 Views6 Downloads
Education for Sustainable Development and Experiments involving Titanium Dioxide
Original Research
The semiconductor titanium dioxide is used in a wide field of applications. The application as food additive has been under debate as it might be potentially cancerogenic. Therefore, experiments should be modified in order to prevent students from having direct contact with the substance. Three experiments relating to different fields of application are proposed in this paper. Accompanying teaching materials have the sustainable development goal 13 “climate action” as a leitmotif. The debate about titanium dioxide is a good didactic anchor to promote education for sustainable development (ESD) in school education in a multi-perspective approach.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 80-86. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-10
Pub. Date: August 28, 2023
469 Views5 Downloads
Fascinating school experiments with fluorescent dyes
Special Issue
The world is colourful – at least from our perspective as humans. But where does colour come from? The present paper addresses this question and, in its first part, presents new experiments on additive colour mixing with fluorescent solutions. In addition, further school experiments with impressive fluorescence effects are described.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 74-79. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-9
Pub. Date: August 22, 2023
613 Views10 Downloads
Green Chemistry in STEM Education: Light for Basic Concepts
Special Issue
The principles of green chemistry can be communicated by means of didactically concise experiments and by relating them to a large variety of key terminology in chemistry. Here we report on innovative experiments in video tutorials, animations and other digital media in which light is involved as a form of energy. A tested and evaluated teaching module on the carbon cycle in animate nature applying several of these experiments and digital media is presented. All these materials enable the communication of basic concepts of chemistry didactics in Germany and contribute to the integration of green chemistry into the school curriculum.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 65-73. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-8
Pub. Date: August 22, 2023
584 Views15 Downloads
Approaching Tandem Solar Cells in Chemistry Classes
Special Issue
Protecting the climate by increasing the share of energy from renewable sources, such as solar energy, has become a central goal of the EU. Hence, this contribution presents approaches to implement this important topic into chemistry education. It first summarizes the working principles of silicon and perovskite solar cells and describes the potential of combining them within a so-called tandem solar cell. We then present an experiment suitable for student laboratories in which a working perovskite solar cell is constructed using anodically oxidized titanium and copper(I) thiocyanate coated FTO glass as electrodes. The self-built solar cell is also experimentally compared to commercially available silicon solar cells. Finally, we provide practical suggestions for covering solar cells in chemistry classes.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 60-64. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-7
Pub. Date: August 22, 2023
1449 Views3 Downloads
From Titanium Foil to Gas Sensor: Nanoporous Anodic Titania as a Functional Material
Special Issue
We present a gas sensor using nanoporous titanium dioxide which is fabricated by anodic oxidation of a titanium foil. The process is easy to handle, can be carried out at low cost and the sensor response to reducing gases can be measured using a cheap digital multimeter. In contrast to the most gas sensors, no commercially available sensor substrate is required. The band model for semiconductors and a model of ionosorption provides an explanation for the working principle of the gas sensor on particle level. Several experimental approaches for upper-secondary chemistry class are presented.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 54-59. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-6
Pub. Date: August 22, 2023
511 Views6 Downloads
Low-field NMR Spectroscopy in Chemical Education
Original Research
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as one of the most important analytical techniques is a component of almost all chemistry courses. However, the experimental approach is often a particular challenge due to the high costs of the required experimental equipment. The aim of this contribution is to provide NMR experiments suited for practical courses at the undergraduate level and for the education of chemistry teachers. For this purpose, a low-field device was used. A main concern for the chosen experiments was a close relation to relevant everyday life questions of students. The studies comprise experiments around alcoholic fermentation and alcoholic beverages as well as in the field of chemical kinetics. In general, the presented methods yield results in a reasonable range.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 45-53. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-5
Pub. Date: August 21, 2023
561 Views10 Downloads
Energy Supply with Biogas – An Example of Curricula Innovation Research in the Field of Renewable Energy
Original Research
In school and university education, it is important to integrate current and innovative topics into the curricula. Curricular innovation research follows this line of research. Especially in the field of education for sustainable development, there is a great need to didactically prepare the topics on the basis of the Sustainable Development Goals and to convey them to pupils and students at an early stage. Energy supply is currently a highly complex and central topic from a climatic and political point of view. In this context, biogas production as a renewable energy source has become even more important. For example, more than 9000 biogas plants are currently in operation in Germany. The principle of biogas production has long been implemented in school experiments. However, it was recognized that the methods used in school experiments usually do not produce methane. Therefore, a new experimental setup was developed to ensure methane production in these experiments and to demonstrate biogas practically. Dried sugar beet was used as a substrate for biogas production. It was mixed with compost or garden soil, which contained the microorganisms required for biogas and methane production and served as inoculum. An inexpensive gas chromatograph was used to measure the methane concentration in the biogas produced. In a first attempt, to ensure methane production, sodium carbonate was added as a buffer to keep the pH of the fermentation broth in the optimal range (pH 7-8). To avoid the addition of buffer, the optimal ratio of compost to sugar beet was then investigated in collaboration with the University of Hohenheim. Based on these results, methane formation was observed after 8 days and methane concentrations of up to 65 vol% were measured. Overall, this trial was a practical way to demonstrate the anaerobic digestion process to students by production of biogas. This study also highlighted the great benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration in curriculum innovation research.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 38-44. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-4
Pub. Date: August 21, 2023
503 Views9 Downloads
Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide by Molybdate - Colourful Insights into the Essence of Catalysis
Original Research
The use of catalysts in chemistry and biology is ubiquitous. To help students understand the nature of catalysis, several experiments on catalysis are used in schools. These all have one drawback - the cause of the lowered activation energy remains unknown. In this article we present the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using molybdate ions. This model catalyst provides a detailed insight into the reaction process through two coloured intermediates, allowing direct phenomenological conclusions to be drawn about the alternative reaction pathway. This is the true reason for the reduced activation energy.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 31-37. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-3
Pub. Date: August 21, 2023
469 Views6 Downloads
Case Comparisons on the Basicity of Organic Nitrogen Compounds to Develop the Concepts of 'inductive effect' and 'mesomeric effect' in the Teaching Laboratory
Original Research
Inductive and resonance effects play an important role in understanding a variety of organic chemical reactions and their mechanisms. Most reactions are kinetic-controlled reactions, in which the effects take effect via the stabilization of reactive intermediates over shorter or longer reaction times. - To avoid this mental "detour", we have developed new learning opportunities on equilibrium reactions of organic bases with water for high school teacher education, with which inductive and resonance effects can be quickly worked out using conductivity and pH measurements. The learning opportunity has already been successfully tested in teacher education in Marburg.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 25-30. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-2
Pub. Date: August 21, 2023
611 Views4 Downloads
3D Printing and a New Way to Synthesize Bio-Based and Biodegradable PLA in Chemistry Education for School Students
Original Research
Plastics are a central part of our everyday lives. One plastic is increasingly finding its way into daily use: polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is being used more and more, as it is an important component (polymer) of bio-based and biodegradable plastic. However, experimental access to plastics for students in school chemistry classes is usually tricky because the syntheses of plastics either are time-consuming or do not provide the intended results. Therefore, an experiment was developed that provides simple and quick access polymers and plastics. With this experiment, school students can independently synthesize polylactic acid in chemistry lessons.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 11(3), 21-24. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-11-3-1
Pub. Date: August 21, 2023
475 Views5 Downloads