Volume 4, Issue 5

Playing with Organic Reaction Mechanisms -ReMeM:BER, an Educational Memory Game
Original Research
The free educational game ReMeM:BER is introduced, which offers to students an opportunity to recapitulate the knowledge of organic chemical reaction mechanisms using the methods of a memory game. In its simplest form, everyone can play it as a special type of memory game incorporating chemical motifs. The level of difficulty of the game can be individually increased by varying the number of cards and through the combination of different pairs of cards (for example, educts - products, reaction name - reaction mechanism). The reaction mechanisms are provided as animated gif files and self-made animations can extend the game. It is possible to use ReMeM:BER in a single player mode or against another player. Java must be installed to run it on a PC.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2016, 4(5), 114-116. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-4-5-4
Pub. Date: October 10, 2016
11867 Views3007 Downloads1 Likes
Rapid and Sensitive Spectroelectrochemical Detection of Lidocainehydrochloride and Caffeine with Screen-Printed Electrodes
Original Research
In analytical and environmental chemistry there is a persistent need for rapid, inexpensive and sensitive detection of harmful organic compounds such as medicinal products, e.g. lidocaine, that can cause low blood pressure and an irregular heart rate and that often contaminate waste water, or caffeine, a screening-parameter for determining the quality of drinking water because it enters drinking water reservoirs only via the contamination of waste water. This article presents some reliable and easily performed spectroelectrochemical measurements, such as electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL), to identify lidocaine and caffeine. The main features of the spectroelectrochemical method are screen-printed electrodes (SPE) that use gold as the working electrode. In addition, this article compares the results of a low-cost experimental set-up ideal for classroom experiments with professional ECL-equipment. The experiments were conducted in an undergraduate-level university course in electrochemistry.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2016, 4(5), 107-113. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-4-5-3
Pub. Date: September 30, 2016
19039 Views4154 Downloads1 Citations
A Highly Versatile One-Pot Aqueous Wittig Reaction
Original Research
The implementation of green chemistry experiments in the sophomore organic teaching lab is essential in order to increase student awareness of issues that pertain to sustainability and reducing waste that impacts the environment. Aspects of green chemistry that draw attention to these important issues include, but are not limited to, the use of safer solvents, the development of energy efficient reactions, the use of less hazardous chemicals, and the prevention of waste. To demonstrate the ease of introducing green chemistry principles into the organic chemistry teaching lab a Wittig reaction was chosen to be “greened.” The green Wittig reaction described within this report was performed at ambient temperature and in an aqueous medium; in addition, the reaction was complete within one hour, and the transformation was accomplished in “one-pot.” Finally, students analyzed the Wittig products using 1H NMR spectroscopy to confirm structure and to determine the E:Z ratio.
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World Journal of Chemical Education. 2016, 4(5), 101-106. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-4-5-2
Pub. Date: September 06, 2016
19100 Views5812 Downloads1 Likes
An Undergraduate-Level Electrochemical Investigation of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Physically Small Carbon Electrodes
Original Research
This paper reports an undergraduate experiment based on analytical chemistry, electrochemistry and materials science of carbon microelectrodes. The modification of the electroactive surface of the carbon microelectrode was done using gold nanoparticles electrodeposited from gold solution. To determine the changes on the surface, the electrode was subjected to simple optical microscopy. Next, the electrode was characterized using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry of two known electrochemical redox markers: hexaamineruthenium(III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III), i.e. potassium ferricyanide. The redox behavior of both markers demonstrated the change in electrode surface. After modification, the ferricyanide reduction peaks were observed to increase significantly, as a consequence of accelerated electron transfer. Furthermore, changes in wave slope and half-wave potentials (E½) of the redox waves also confirmed an altered electrode surface that students can logically trace back to the modification. The electrode tip dimension was also determined using a modified form of the Cottrell equation, confirming the tip size to be 2.0 µm. The discussion of these results enables an understanding of electrochemistry, analytical chemistry and materials chemistry, and presents an excellent opportunity to apply these in an undergraduate setting.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2016, 4(5), 93-100. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-4-5-1
Pub. Date: August 24, 2016
18281 Views4446 Downloads2 Likes