Volume 7, Issue 1

An Undergraduate Experiment Using Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metalloporphyrins: Characterization and Spectroscopic Investigations
Original Research
The effectiveness of microwave-assisted synthesis of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin and its corresponding to metal complexes of (Bi (III), Zn (II) and Ni (II)) are described. Moreover, the synthesized metalloporphyrins that were obtained with reasonable yields were characterized using UV-vis, 1H-NMR and IR.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2019, 7(1), 26-32. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-7-1-4
Pub. Date: February 04, 2019
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Microwave Extraction of Eugenol from Cloves: A Greener Undergraduate Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Lab
The extraction of eugenol from cloves is a frequent experiment in organic chemistry labs at the sophomore level. In this paper, the commonly used steam distillation procedure has been modified to use microwave extraction. This change resulted in a simplified procedure, a reduction in the amount of sample required, and an increase in the efficiency of the extraction of eugenol from dried cloves. These modifications led to reduction of waste and energy use. Variations of the solvent composition, solvent volume, and amount of cloves were tested. It was found that a 50/50 v/v mixture of ethanol and water with whole cloves produced satisfactory results at the undergraduate laboratory level for the selective extraction of eugenol with 1g of whole cloves in less time than steam distillation.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2019, 7(1), 21-25. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-7-1-3
Pub. Date: January 22, 2019
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The Human Model for Chemistry Essentials of Life
Original Research
Human models are presented that will evoke more interest in chemistry or help to overview a complex of reactions. The basic methodology is asking the question of human modeling in chemistry and the search for corresponding subjects. The Vigeland tetrahedral man model, its connections to carbon, and a human body resembling tetrahedron based model for biochemically relevant functional group reactions are presented. Chemical properties analog to four (human) limbs are detected for key actions in the chemistry of life. The human larynx is a model for the core of the neon electron configuration. The human body model is discussed for the chemical properties chirality, configuration and conformation, initiation, propagation and termination. Cube, human and chemical octets are presented. Human hand connections are established for the four basic biomolecules. Remarks and new viewpoints on proteinogenic amino acid fingers are presented. The genetic code and related properties that model the bones and joints structure of a human arm are further developed. The article proves that human models are possible, acceptable, convincing, desirable and interesting.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2019, 7(1), 12-20. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-7-1-2
Pub. Date: January 18, 2019
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Quantitative Analysis of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Polyethylene (PVOH-PE) Copolymers and Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone-Polyvinyl Acetate (PVP-PVAc) Copolymers and Blends Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Elemental Analysis
Original Research
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a widespread instrumental technique used to determine the molecular structure of organic polymers. With the goal of increasing instrumental use in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, we have devised a quantitative FTIR experiment to be used in instrumental analysis courses. The objective was to determine the % PVOH in copolymers with PE as well as to determine the % PVAc in copolymers and blends with PVP. We report on the methodology used to determine % PVOH and %PVP, as well as the results obtained via FTIR and elemental analysis. The literature regarding PVOH-PE copolymers refers to them as either EVOH copolymers or PVOH-PE copolymers, though EVOH is more common and thus these copolymers will be referred to as EVOH. The EVOH copolymers ranged from 73 to 56 mole% PVOH and the copolymers and blends of PVP-PVAc ranged from 70 to 30 mole% PVP.
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2019, 7(1), 1-11. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-7-1-1
Pub. Date: January 17, 2019
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